This course serves as the culminating activity for students majoring in History, Political Science, International Studies, and/or Social Science. The purpose of the course is to allow students an opportunity to engage in an in-depth research project and to share their findings and analyses in written and oral presentations.
The focus of this research-intensive class is a detailed study, longer than a typical term paper, on the subject of your choice. Papers must be argumentative – that is, you are not simply reciting information that anyone can acquire from a textbook, but rather presenting and defending a thesis. This will require you to immerse yourself in primary and secondary sources that relate to your topic. The paper is your best opportunity to demonstrate the ability to critically analyze a topic, compose a scholarly narrative, and demonstrate mastery of the various skills you have learned at the University. For these reasons, it is your capstone project at the end of your undergraduate studies.
This class also fulfills your LVE 400 requirement. For this component of the class, you must complete an ePortfolio assignment, which must include two reflections on your research: Acknowledgments, in which you reflect on experiences and influences that led you to your senior project, and an Epilogue, in which you reflect on the implications of your research for yourself and for the research community more broadly.
Students are expected to demonstrate proficient analysis, synthesis, and organized insight through two major assignments:
- Completion of a major research paper (Senior Thesis) that demonstrates the ability to think critically and conduct valuable research in your field.
- Successful completion of three sections of the ePortfolio with artifacts and reflections that align with La Verne’s baccalaureate learning outcomes.
By the end of the semester, you should have the ability to:
- demonstrate competency in writing reflections.
- participate in meaningful classroom discussions.
- think critically on your knowledge, and research and writing skills and attitudes throughout the course.
- reflect on your intercultural competency and how the conclusions relate to your personal and professional development.
- research intercultural competency for a new artifact for your ePortfolio.
- align relevant artifacts and participation
- relate your knowledge, skills, and attitudes by participating in an interdisciplinary, intercultural capstone assignment.
Readers: For this class, each student will work with a faculty reader from within the Department of History and Political Science to review his or her paper. The reader will help students research and develop their topics, and ultimately assign a final grade for the paper. When you submit your outline, you must also list (in order of preference) three possible readers for your paper.
You are required to consult your reader at least three times: twice prior to the completion of your rough draft and once afterward. It is your responsibility to independently consult your reader at least once before your in-class presentation and at least once after you receive feedback on your first draft. Following this meeting, please request that your reader email me verification of your meeting so that you receive credit.
History Readers: Kenneth Marcus, Allyson Brantley, Ben Jenkins
Political Science Readers: Richard Gelm, Gitty Amini, Juli Minoves-Triquell, Jason Neidleman
Scholarly Sources: For an upper division class such as the Senior Seminar, you should be able to locate and properly utilize scholarly sources. The best texts you can use are books or articles published by academics in the fields of history, political science, and related disciplines. Articles from scholarly, peer-reviewed journals are among the most appropriate sources available to you for your paper. You may not use more than three non-scholarly internet sources, and you should never use an open source platform like Wikipedia.
Library Tutorial: Early in the semester, we will visit Wilson Library, where a librarian will show you how to conduct research on your topic using the academic resources at the University of La Verne. The more you know about your topic, the better you will be able to take advantage of this opportunity. If you are unable to attend this class session, you must schedule an appointment with a librarian yourself and have them email me confirmation of your visit. Use this link: https://library.laverne.edu/subject-librarian/.
Course Conduct: In order to build and maintain a supportive and productive learning community, students and instructors must treat one another with respect.
For students, this includes but is not limited to:
- Being prepared to discuss the assigned readings each day;
- Regular attendance;
- Notifying the instructor of any scheduling conflicts;
- On-time arrival to class;
- Minimizing trips in and out of the room during class;
- Minimizing side-conversations;
- Refraining from use of cell phones, tablets, and laptops. Neither laptops nor tablets may be used in class. Cell phones must be turned off AND put away during class meetings. Students who use laptops, tablets, or cell phones will be considered absent.
Failure to adhere to these expectations – especially if students are disrupting others’ learning or creating an unwelcoming environment – will result in disciplinary measures. For more on University policies on appropriate classroom conduct, see the “Rights and Responsibilities” section of the University of La Verne Catalog.
For instructors, responsibility for building and maintaining a supportive and productive learning community, which includes but is not limited to:
- Being accessible to students;
- Communicating clear expectations for student success;
- Addressing students respectfully, including use of preferred names and pronouns;
- Returning graded work in a timely fashion;
- Creating an open exchange of ideas to which all students are encouraged to contribute;
- Facilitating the interrogation and critical analysis of ideas, including interrogation of the instructor’s views, biases, and values.
Students are encouraged to report violations of University policy, including sexual misconduct and social justice incidents here: https://laverne.edu/student-affairs/incident-report-wellness-referral-form/.
Disability Accommodations: If you need disability accommodations for an exam or other assignment, please see the instructor as soon as possible. Information regarding disabilities, including learning disabilities, will remain confidential. If you are not sure whether you need special accommodations, please contact the Accessibility Services Department. Information about location and contact numbers can be found here: https://sites.laverne.edu/disabled-student-services/.
Grades will be based on the following:
- Research paper: 55%
- 1-2 page outline (5%)
- rough draft (10%)
- final draft (40%)
- ePortfolio: 20%
- In-class presentation: 10%
- Attendance: 15%
Students wishing to contest a grade should submit a typed explanation of their reasons for requesting reconsideration. A copy of the request will go both to the reader and to the instructor.
Outline: By our second class meeting, students must have a topic. By midnight on the day before that meeting, students will submit the title of their project, a brief (1-2 page) outline of their topic and argument, as well as a list of preferred readers (see above). Outlines must be submitted to SafeAssign on Blackboard. This outline must include a bibliography of at least five preliminary academic sources for your research. At our second class meeting, you will present your outline to the class, and I will work with you on your topics. Outlines will be returned after that class meeting, and you may be asked to submit a revised outline, incorporating my recommendations and/or those of your reader. At this course meeting, we will also select dates for the oral presentation of your research.
Here is a guide to composing an outline:
- What is your research question?
- What is your answer to that question?
- (This answer is your thesis statement.)
- What evidence do you have to support your thesis statement?
- (This is your argument.)
- How will you divide and then present that argument and evidence?
- Write your outline based on that information.
Research Paper: Students are required to write an 8000-10,000-word research paper, which totals approximately 30-40 pages and begins with an abstract. Use 8.5 x 11” paper and twelve-point font for your senior thesis, with 1” margins on all sides. Double space your papers.
On the date given below, you will submit a rough draft of your research paper before midnight. This draft will include a clear thesis statement in the first paragraph of the paper, as well as a literature review analyzing 2-3 books useful to your topic, with footnotes or endnotes using the Chicago Manual of Style. This draft will be approximately 70-75% completed, or at least 6,000 words. It will benefit you to have the paper as near to completion as possible so that you can receive detailed feedback on your assignment. Provide two hardcopies of your final draft and turn it in through Blackboard SafeAssign. All papers must be submitted in Microsoft Word. No PDFs.
Students must append two items to their research project, both of which will also be essential components of their ePortfolio:
- A 500-word “Acknowledgments” section at the beginning of their paper, which includes reflection on the relationship between this project and the student’s previous work within the major. Any previous work referenced in this section of the paper should be uploaded to the student’s ePortfolio. At least one previous piece of writing must be discussed and uploaded in this assignment. Students should use the Critical Thinking/Information Literacy and Written Communication VALUE rubrics from AAC&U as a guide for this assignment.
- A 500-word “Epilogue” discussing the implications of the student’s research. This section of the project must reference two cultures or contexts not discussed in the project. It should include reflection on how future research might apply the results of the student’s project beyond the scope of the cultural context examined in the project. Students should use the Intercultural Competence VALUE rubric as a guide for this assignment.
To align with LVE 400, your rough draft and final paper will be graded according to the Written Communication VALUE rubric, which is available on Blackboard.
Presentations: Students will give oral presentations of their research topics. These scholarly lectures will last approximately 20-25 minutes. At the time of your presentation, you will distribute a brief outline (1-2 pages) of your research paper, including your thesis statement, to the instructor and all members of the class. For your presentation, you should be prepared to speak for approximately 20 minutes on your senior project and approximately 5 minutes regarding your ePortfolio artifacts and reflection essays. Students must prepare an electronic presentation (PowerPoint, Prezi, Google Slides, etc.) for use during presentations and for inclusion in the ePortfolio. When you design your slides, please make sure that you put very little text on each slide you use. Slides that include a large amount of text are not effective. If you put a large amount of text on a slide (e.g. a quotation), you need to give the audience time to read the text.
After the prepared portion of student presentations are complete, there will be a question and answer session with your colleagues in the class and any other audience members who are in attendance. By tradition, senior thesis presentations are open to the whole campus community and you are free to invite anyone you would like to your presentation.
ePortfolio and Artifacts: The ePortfolio is a general education capstone that displays mastery of La Verne’s Baccalaureate goals. Students will compile their ePortfolios with artifacts and short reflection essays of 2-4 pages that contemplate their coursework at La Verne. The ePortfolio must be created through Digication: https://laverne.digication.com/app. Make sure you set your permissions to allow instructors to view your ePortfolio with a link. Use this link to begin creating your Digication ePortfolio: https://laverne.digication.com/portfolios/create. Digication has a student guide which attempts to address any questions or concerns you may have about interfacing with the platform. It can be found here: https://support.digication.com/hc/en-us/categories/204262988-Student-Guide.
The following elements should appear in your ePortfolio:
- An abstract. This should be a 200-400 word summary of the senior project and must include the project’s main thesis or argument.
- The research paper. Baccalaureate Learning Outcomes: Intercultural Competence, Written Communication, and Critical Thinking/Information Literacy
- At least one paper written for another class in the major. This paper should be discussed in the student’s Acknowledgments (see #3 below). In reflecting on this paper, students should use the Writing Rubric posted on the La Verne Experience webpage. Baccalaureate Learning Outcome: Written Communication
- Acknowledgments (500 words) A reflection on your project using the Written Communication VALUE Rubric and the Critical Thinking/Information Literacy VALUE rubric (available on Blackboard). Baccalaureate Learning Outcome: Critical Thinking/Information Literacy and Written Communication
- A reflection on at least two different cultures not discussed in your senior project (500 words). This is the Epilogue referenced above. Use the Intercultural Knowledge and Competence VALUE Rubric (available on Blackboard). Baccalaureate Learning Outcome: Intercultural Competence
- The electronic presentation. Baccalaureate Outcome: Critical Thinking/Information Literacy
Attendance and Participation: Attendance and punctuality are basic requirements for an effective discussion. Beyond that, each student’s frequency and quality of contribution to the class discussion will be assessed and reflected in the class participation score. Students should listen attentively to presentations and pose thoughtful questions in response.
In addition to in-class participation, I expect that all of you, either alone or in groups, will contact me or your readers frequently during the semester. We are available to discuss your projects, either during office hours, at other times, over the phone, or through email. If you would prefer to schedule a time during non-office hours, simply contact us by phone or email and we will schedule an appropriate time. Students are required to meet with their readers at least three times. Deadlines for these meetings are given below. Please contact Kristin Howland to make these meetings (email@example.com).
Students who miss more than one class will automatically suffer a deduction of one-third of a grade (e.g. a B+ becomes a B). Students who miss more than two classes will suffer a full grade deduction (e.g. a B+ becomes a C+). Multiple instances of tardiness will also result in a deduction of one-third of a grade.
Late Work: You must turn in all assignments on time, on the due dates listed in this syllabus. Late papers will be penalized at the rate of one grade per day.
SCHEDULE OF MEETINGS AND REQUIRED READINGS
SEPT. 3: Introduction
SEPT. 9: Outlines with list of preferred readers due by midnight
SEPT. 10: Outlines discussed, readers assigned, presentations scheduled, Librarian visit
SEPT 17: Outlines discussed, students complete senior surveys and senior exit exams.
SEPT. 23: Deadline for first meeting with reader. Do not wait until the last minute to schedule your meeting.
SEPT. 24-OCT. 15: Individual research – no class
OCT. 16: Deadline for second meeting with reader. Do not wait until the last minute to schedule your meeting.
OCT. 22: Student presentations
OCT. 30 ROUGH DRAFT OF RESEARCH PAPER WITH LITERATURE SURVEY DUE
OCT. 29: Student presentations
NOV. 5: Student presentations
NOV. 6: Rough drafts returned
NOV. 12: Student presentations
NOV. 13: Deadline for third meeting with reader. Do not wait until the last minute to schedule your meeting.
NOV. 19: Student presentations
NOV. 26: THANKSGIVING
DEC. 3: Student presentations
DEC. 10: Individual research – no class
DEC. 14: Final drafts and ePortfolios due before midnight
The Department of History and Political Science mandates that all submitted work adhere to the Turabian/Chicago style delineated in Kate Turabian, et. al., A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, University of Chicago Press (available at the Wilson Library Reference Desk). Here you can access the online version of the Chicago Manual of Style.
Your work will be evaluated according to the following criteria:
A— designates work of extraordinarily high quality; reflects unusually thorough and comprehensive understanding of issues at hand; presents a clearly identifiable thesis and argument that demonstrates cogent and creative development and support of ideas.
B— designates work of high quality; reflects clearly organized and comprehensive understanding of issues and hand; presents substantive thesis and argument with evident development and support of ideas.
C— designates work which minimally meets requirements set forward in assignment; reflects some organization and development of ideas, but develops argument in superficial or simplistic manner; may only address part of the assignment or be otherwise incomplete.
D— designates work of poor quality which does not meet minimum requirements set forward in assignment; demonstrates poor organization of ideas and/or inattention to development of ideas, grammar, and spelling; treatment of material is superficial and/or simplistic; may indicate that student has not done reading assignments thoroughly.
F— designates work that does not meet ANY of the standards set above or which is not handed in.
Plagiarism is the use of sources without proper citations. It involves taking another writer’s ideas or words without a note naming the source. The University of La Verne does not tolerate plagiarism. You may consult its definition and policies regarding the subject in the course catalog, or at http://library.laverne.edu/copyright/plagiarism/.
Plagiarism is a prevalent but highly unethical practice. Plagiarism will result in the immediate failure of this course and disciplinary action which could lead to expulsion from the University. If you are having problems in the course, please come and talk to me about it rather than doing something that could put your entire college career in jeopardy. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to the following:
- The direct copying of any source, such as written and verbal material, computer files, audio disks, video programs or musical scores, whether published or unpublished, in whole or part, without proper acknowledgment that it is someone else’s.
- Copying of any source in whole or part with only minor changes in wording or syntax, even with acknowledgment.
- Submitting as one’s own work a report, examination paper, computer file, lab report or other assignment that has been prepared by someone else. This includes research papers purchased from any other person or agency.
- The paraphrasing of another’s work or ideas without proper acknowledgment.
The Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences sponsors a university-wide competition “to recognize exceptional senior or culminating projects (research or creative endeavors) by undergraduates within the four divisions of the College of Arts and Sciences completed in the current academic year. Winners must demonstrate the highest standards of quality in their field, as well as close collaboration with a faculty mentor.” The Department of History and Political Science can nominate up to two students each semester for this competitive award. If you believe your thesis could be a good candidate for this award, please see me about how to nominate yourself for departmental consideration.
Depending on your major and interests, you may also qualify for recognition by one of several national honor societies. The Department of History and Political Science is the university host to two such honor societies: Pi Gamma Mu, the social science honor society, and Phi Alpha Theta, the history honor society. Please see me for details about qualifying criteria and application procedures for these two societies.
Academic Success Center: The Academic Success Center provides free one-on-one peer tutoring to graduate and undergraduate students in a wide variety of courses and subjects. Please make liberal use of the ASC if you need assistance with any of the assignments for this course. To make an appointment, use the quick start guide, stop by ASC on the second floor of the Campus Center, or call (909) 448-4342. Answers to frequently asked questions are available here.
Research and Library Help: I strongly suggest that you schedule an appointment with a librarian to help you find appropriate scholarly resources for your senior thesis. Visit https://library.laverne.edu/ for more information. Additionally, the Makerspace in Wilson Library can help you print with any special visual aids you may decide to use. See https://laverne.libguides.com/librarymakerspace for more information.
Counseling and Psychological Services: Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS), located at 2215 E Street, is another useful resource on campus. As they state: “Every student has a right to achieve their full human potential.” If you need help, or if you think a friend or fellow student needs help, please call or visit to set up an appointment. Their website is https://laverne.edu/counseling/.
Blackboard: Blackboard is an online management system which allows faculty to post course specific materials online (syllabus, assignments, etc.), send announcements, create class discussions, etc. To receive technical assistance, please visit https://help.blackboard.com/ or call the University’s Service Desk at (909) 448-4089, which can help with Blackboard issues as well as logging on to MyLaVerne or the university network. A live person is available at that telephone number 24/7 to assist you.
Title IX- Mandated Reporter: The University of La Verne is committed to making our campuses safer places for students, faculty, and staff. Because of this commitment, and our federal obligations, faculty and other employees are considered mandated reporters when it comes to experiences of interpersonal violence (sexual assault, sexual harassment, dating or domestic violence, and stalking). Disclosures of interpersonal violence must be passed along to the University’s Title IX Manager who can help provide support, remedies, and resources for individuals who have been impacted. More information can be found online at https://laverne.edu/title-ix/ or by contacting the Title IX Manager at firstname.lastname@example.org or 909-448-4078.
Students are encouraged to report violations of University policy, including sexual misconduct and social justice incidents, through this link here: https://laverne.edu/student-affairs/incident-report-wellness-referral-form/.
Reasonable Accommodation Statement: Any student eligible for and requesting academic accommodations due to a documented disability is asked to contact the Accessibility Services Department. You can reach the Accessibility Services office at (909) 448-4938. The office is located at 2215 “E” Street. Students with disabilities must document their disability with the Accessibility Services office in order to be considered for accommodations in their courses. Visit https://laverne.edu/accessibility/ for additional information.
Academic Religious Accommodation: The most common request for academic religious accommodation concerns class attendance during the observance of major religious holy days and celebrations. It is the policy of the University to grant students excused absences from class for observance of religious holy days. Students are expected to contact faculty at the beginning of the course (within the first two weeks of class) after reviewing course syllabi for potential scheduling conflicts. Students who request an excused absence in advance shall be provided with a reasonable alternative.
(h/t Barnard College)
Appendix A: Questions to Consider when Writing a Senior Project
- Topic: A good topic should pose an interesting question that can be answered by available evidence. How well does the thesis do this?
- Title: A good title is difficult to create. It should excite the reader’s interest, while reducing the thesis’s core idea to a few words.
- Statement of Argument / Introduction: The introduction should draw the reader into the topic and make clear where the writer is going. The writer should pose an answerable question and articulate the argument she will construct to answer that question. Does the author accomplish these goals?
- Discussion of the relevant scholarly literature / Historiography: A good essay is part of a larger conversation among scholars. How well does the author define the scholarly discussion to which she wishes to contribute? Does the writer make clear what others have said on the subject? Does she make clear what her position is and what she is adding to the debate?
- Organization: The longer a piece of writing, the more critical the organization. How well organized is this thesis? Do the chapter divisions make sense in terms of the overall argument?
- Details: Is the note form (either footnotes or endnotes may be used) proper and consistent? Does the author effectively use notes to convey useful information tangential to the main argument? Are quotations over 35 words indented?
Appendix B: Shaping a Senior Thesis
Most of the time, topics (questions) are made, not born. You begin with a fuzzy notion of something that interests you, something that seems worth investigating, and you proceed from there.
Follow your curiosity. Conceiving your topic in the form of a question often helps. Work continually to focus your question. You can never provide the whole answer to any large historical question—nor should you try to. Think of yourself as making a finite, limited, yet trustworthy contribution to the larger history of your subject.
The thesis must take a clear and specific stand that is supported by argument and evidence. Good theses not only corroborate their point of view, but also address alternative viewpoints and potential criticisms.
At some point (and it is better if this happens sooner rather than later), you will come to the realization that you cannot afford to reinvent the wheel. You don’t have all the time in the world, and you need to find an efficient and economical way of getting at your subject. Don’t spend your time and energy simply recapitulating the information you have gotten through reading secondary sources. Rather, look for openings, questions, points that have not been considered to your satisfaction, problems that have been raised by the information you have found in the primary and secondary sources. Often your reader will need some broad, preliminary information in order to understand where you are coming from and where you are heading. Providing contextual information may be necessary at various points in your paper. But get to the meat of your topic and your interpretation as soon as and whenever possible.
We understand your desire to tell the “whole story” of whatever aspect of history you choose to discuss. But resist this temptation. It is necessary for you to learn the general history of your subject in order to do your work, but it is not your task to recapitulate this information. You’ve got to choose one limited aspect of the story on which to focus–one focused area in which to make a real contribution to the subject through your particular reading of available primary sources. The most successful papers work from the particular to the general. Think of yourself as a contributor to a much larger project.
If you have done things correctly, you will find that not all your research can be used. Do not regard this as a mistake; it is a normal part of the process. Trying to stuff everything you’ve found into a paper can lead to real problems.
The questions you ask may not be resolved in any ultimate sense; your conclusions may be fairly tentative, but you should, nevertheless be working toward a conclusion.
Appendix C: Proper Format for Note References
The first time you use any source, cite it in full. You need to use a full citation only the first time you cite any work. Every time thereafter, you should use the abbreviated short title form (see the section under this heading below).
Full Book Citation
Author’s full name (first name, initial, last name)
Complete title of the book (either underlined or in italics—whichever you choose, be consistent)
Editor, compiler, or translator, if any
Name of series in which book appears, if any, and volume or number in the series
Edition, if other than the first
Number of volumes
Facts of publication — city where published, publisher (if you wish), date of publication
Page number(s) of the particular citation
Examples of Full Citations for Books
Author: The first time an author’s name appears it should be written in full. For footnotes, place the first name first and the last name last. (Only in the Bibliography should you place the last name first.)
- Judith A. Baer, Equality Under the Constitutions: Reclaiming the Fourteenth Amendment (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983), 105-130.
All book titles must either italicized or underlined (choose one or the other and then be consistent throughout).
- Marc Bloch, Feudal Society, trans. L. A. Manyon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), 69.
- Thomas W. Copeland, ed., The Papers of James Madison, 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), 49.
- Deborah L. Rhode, ed., Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Difference (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), 257-260.
Multivolume Works: Works of more than one volume should be identified in notes by the number of volumes in the work and the number of the volume from which a quote has been taken. Some multivolume works have a general title and individual titles for each volume; in that case list the general title and then the particular title to which the note refers. Notes for books that are part of a series should list the title of the book in italics, followed by the title of the series in roman letters:
- Edward T. James et al. eds., Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, 3 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), 1:119.
- Fernand Braudel, The Identity of France, vol. 2, People and Production, trans. Sian Reynolds (New York: Harper Collins, 1990), 237-238.
- James Losh, The Diaries and Correspondence of James Losh, ed. Edward Hughes, 2 vols., Publications of the Surtees Society, vols. 171, 172 (Durham, England: Andrews & Co. for the Society, 1962-63), 2:200-212.
Full Citation Form for all Articles:
(To be used only the first time a work is cited. Every time thereafter, use the Short Title citation form as outlined below.)
Author’s Full Name (first name, initial, last name)
Title of the Article (in quotation marks)
Name of the periodical (either underlined or in italics)
Number of the volume or issue
Date of the volume or of the issue (year in parenthesis)
Page number(s) of the particular citation
Examples of Full Citations for Articles
Article in a Scholarly Journal:
Mary Louise Roberts, “Samson and Delilah Revisited: The Politics of Women’s Fashion in 1920’s France,” American Historical Review, 98 (1993): 657.
Chapter in a Book:
Patricia O’Brien, “Michel Foucault’s History of Culture,” in Lynn Hunt, ed., The New Cultural History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 25.
Article in a Magazine:
Lucy Eisenberg, “Scientists vs. Animal Lovers: The Conflict That Never Ends,” Harper’s, November 1966, 101-10.
Citing a Newspaper:
New York Times, 11 August 1965, p. B3.
Citing a Government Publication:
U.S. Congress, Senate, Congressional Record, 9 October 1987, pp. 14011-12.
Citing a Book Review:
Ronald M. Radano, review of The Creation of Jazz by Burton W. Puretti, Reviews in American History, 21 (December 1993): 671.
Citing a Well Known Reference Book:
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. “Prayers for the Dead.”
Short Title Citations
After the first reference to a particular source of whatever kind, all subsequent references should be shortened.
The shortened reference to a book should include only:
Last name of the author
Shortened title of the book (underlined or in italics)
Page number of the reference.
For the first citation of any book use the
Book, Full Title:
Judith A. Baer, Equality Under the Constitution: Reclaiming the Fourteenth Amendment (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983), 105-130.
For all succeeding citations use the
Book, Short Title:
Baer, Equality Under the Constitution, 105-130.
Book, Full Title:
Deborah L. Rhode, ed., Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Difference (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), 257-260.
Book, Short Title:
Rhode, ed., Theoretical Perspectives, 257-60.
Short Title Citations for All Articles
The shortened reference to an article should include only:
Last name of the author,
Short title of the article,
Page numbers of the reference.
Article, Full Title Citation:
Mary Louise Roberts, “Samson and Delilah Revisited: The Politics of Women’s Fashion in 1920’s France,” American Historical Review, 98 (June 1993): 657.
Article, Short Title Citation:
Roberts, “Samson and Delilah,” 657.
A shortened reference to a manuscript source should include only the title and name of the collection.